The Ferrari 488 Spider is the latest chapter in Maranello's ongoing of opentop Sports Cars.
The Ferrari 488 Spider is the latest chapter in Maranello's ongoing history of open-top v8 sports cars, a story that started with the targa-top version of the 308 GTB - the immortal 308 GTS - and which ultimately resulted in the full convertible spider architecture.
Starting with the RHT (Retractable Hard Top) around which the entire car was developed, every area of the 488 Spider has been designed to set new technological benchmarks for the sector The result is the most powerful and innovative Ferrari Spider ever built, a car that marries the extraordinary prowess of the 488 GTB coupé’s mid-rear V8 with the joy of tackling even the most challenging roads surrounded by nature’s heady aromas and colours and accompanied by an inimitable Ferrari engine soundtrack.
At the very heart of the car is, of course, the 3902cc turbo-charged V8 which set a new benchmark for this type of architecture. Thanks to a maximum power output of 670 CV and smooth, progressive torque delivery in the higher gears by the Variable Torque Management system, the 488 Spider sprints from 0 to 100 km/h in 3 seconds flat and from 0 to 200 km/h in 8.7 seconds.
To achieve this engaging handling balance the mechanical set-up was honed in tandem with the electronic systems which now include the evolved version of Ferrari’s side slip angle control system (Side Slip Control 2 - SSC2). Over all, in fact, response times are 9% more rapid than the previous Spider.
The values of fuel consumptions and CO2 emissions shown were determined according to the European Regulation (EC) 715/2007 in the version applicable at the time of type approval The fuel consumption and CO2 emission ﬁgures refer to the WLTP cycle.
In order to be placed on the market, passenger cars carry out a series of tests to verify their compliance with regulations.
The tests to assess fuel consumption, CO2 and pollutant emissions are carried out in the laboratory and are based on specific driving cycles. In this way, the tests are reproducible and the results comparable. This is important because only a laboratory test, which follows a standardized and repeatable procedure, allows consumers to compare different car models.
On 1 September 2017, the new Worldwide harmonised Light-duty vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP) came into force in Europe and will gradually replace the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) protocol.
NEDC (New European Driving Cycle): it has been the European driving cycle used so far for the measurement of fuel consumption and emissions from passenger cars and light commercial vehicles. The first European driving cycle came into force in 1970 and referred to an urban route. In 1992 it was also considered to have an extra-urban phase and since 1997 it has been used for measuring consumption and CO2 emissions. However, the composition of this cycle is no longer consistent with current driving styles and distances travelled on different types of roads. The average speed of the NEDC is only 34 km/h, accelerations are low and the maximum speed is just 120 km/h.
WLTP procedure: WLTP uses new Worldwide harmonised Light-duty vehicle Test Cycles (WLTC) to measure fuel consumption, CO2 and pollutant emissions from passenger cars and light commercial vehicles. The new protocol aims to provide customers with more realistic data, better reflecting the daily use of the vehicle. The new WLTP procedure is characterized by a more dynamic driving profile with more significant acceleration. The maximum speed increases from 120 to 131.3 km/h, the average speed is 46.5 km/h and the total cycle time is 30 minutes, 10 minutes more than the previous NEDC. The distance travelled doubles from 11 to 23.25 kilometers. The WLTP test consists of four parts depending on the maximum speed: Low (up to 56.5 km/h), Medium (up to 76.6 km/h), High (up to 97.4 km/h), Extra-high (up to 131.3 km/h). These parts of the cycle simulate urban and suburban driving and driving on extra-urban roads and motorways. The procedure also takes into account all vehicle’s optional contents that affect aerodynamics, rolling resistance and vehicle mass, resulting in a CO2 value that reflects the characteristics of the single vehicle.
The WLTP procedure will gradually replace the NEDC procedure. The WLTP applies to new passenger car models from 1 September 2017, to all passenger cars registered from 1 September 2018 and is mandatory for all EU Member States.
Until the end of 2020, both fuel consumption and CO2 emission values in WLTP and NEDC will be present in the vehicle documents. Indeed, NEDC values will be used to assess the average CO2 emissions of cars registered in the EU throughout 2020. In addition, some countries may continue to use the NEDC data for fiscal purposes. From 2021 onwards, WLTP data will be the only consumption/CO2 emissions values for all cars. Used vehicles will not be affected by this step and will maintain their certified NEDC values.
ROAD CONSUMPTION AND EMISSION OF PASSENGER CARS
The new WLTP test procedure is more representative of current driving conditions than the NEDC procedure, but it cannot take into account all possible cases including the effect of the driving style that is specific to each individual driver.
Therefore, there will still be a difference between emissions and consumption measured in the laboratory and those resulting from the use of the vehicle in the real world, and the extent of this difference will depend on factors such as driving behavior, the use of on-board systems (e. g. air conditioning), traffic and weather conditions that are characteristic of each geographical area and each driver.
For this reason, only a standardized laboratory test allows to obtain values with which it is possible to compare vehicles and different models in a fair way.
WHAT CHANGES FOR CUSTOMERS
The new WLTP procedure will provide a more realistic criterion for comparing the fuel consumption and CO2 emission values of different vehicle models as it has been designed to better reflect real driving behavior and take into account the specific technical characteristics of the individual model and version, including optional equipment.
Minimising drag and maximising downforce are normally two mutually exclusive objectives in aerodynamics. However, the Prancing Horse’s engineers have excelled themselves once again with the 488 Spider, by reconciling the two goals. The result is an aerodyanamic efficiency figure of 1.53 a new record for a Ferrari production Spider.
The front of the car is dominated by the central Aero Pillar and an F1-inspired double spoiler.
The Aero Pillar has the job of managing the powerful air flows striking the front of the car and distributing them along both the longitudinal and transverse plane. The 488 Spider has an innovative aerodynamic underbody that incorporates vortex generators, special curved aerodynamic appendages which accelerate the air thereby reducing pressure. The result is that the car’s underbody is “sucked” down to the ground and downforce is higher but drag is not. The front section of the underbody is flat, generating downforce, which pushes the car lower to the ground whilst having the smallest possible impact on the flow arriving at the front strakes.
The large rear diffuser has curved fences which optimise the expansion of the huge amount of air channelled under the car.
The rear diffuser features variable flap geometry controlled by a CPU, integrated with other vehicle control systems.
The blown spoiler is a new Ferrari-patented solution. Air enters an intake at the base of the rear screen and exits via the bumper. This geometry enables the surface taking the aerodynamic load to have a more pronounced concave curvature which, in turn, increases the upward deflection of the flow, thus boosting downforce. This solution avoids having to extend the height of the rear spoiler and thus helps keep drag low.
The base bleed air intakes on the car’s sides are divided by a central flap. The flow over the upper part of the flap, which is also used for the engine air intake, is deflected and exits from the tail area to reduce the drag caused by the low-pressure wake directly behind the car.
The Aero Pillar has the job of managing the powerful air ﬂows striking the front of the car and distributing them along both the longitudinal and transverse plane.
This is the result of the unique specialist vehicle dynamics knowledge Ferrari has built up in competition and which led to the adoption of a sophisticated simulator, similar to the one used by the Formula 1 Scuderia.
Specific gear ratios combined with Variable Torque Management deliver incredibly fast shifts and acceleration, with progressively greater torque values in higher gears.
The evolved version of Ferrari’s side slip angle control system (SSC2) delivers 12% faster longitudinal acceleration out of corners than the 458 Spider.
The 488 Spider’s excellent dynamics are due in part also to the SCM3 magnetorheological damping system. The dampers have new piston rods to reduce friction for more efficient control which translates into a feeling of greater body control with better bump absorption.
The latest evolution of the ESP guarantees even more efficient ABS intervention in low-grip situations.
Thanks to the new Brembo Extreme Design braking system, the 488 Spider’s stopping distances are 9 per cent shorter than the previous model. Derived from the LaFerrari, the brakes also have new callipers that feature new materials that ensure they reach optimal operating temperature faster and are more durable.
The 488 Spider’s sporty new 20” wheels are lighter too.
The 488 Spider’s design was adapted to efﬁciently meet the typical the demands of Spider driving and use. Its dynamic behaviour is effortless on even the most challenging routes, underscoring the feeling of ease in driving on the limit. Over all, response times are 9% more rapid than the previous Spider without any compromising whatsoever on comfort.
Regardless of the model or its mission, the heart of every Ferrari is its engine which must, of course, deliver the classic Ferrari power unit qualities: blistering performance combined with high revs, razor-sharp responsiveness, powerful acceleration at all speeds and an exhilarating soundtrack.
This power unit is the Prancing Horse’s most high performance engine ever with zero turbo lag and a unique, exhilarating soundtrack.
It delivers 670 cv at 8,000 rpm with a specific power output of 172 cv/l, a new record for a road-going Ferrari, maximum torque of 760 Nm in seventh gear and a throttle response time of just 0.8 seconds at 2000 rpm in third gear.
Normally, turbos have a significant impact on throttle response times: turbo lag increases with power resulting in response times that can be two to three times longer than in a naturally-aspirated engine. Maranello’s engineers have overcome this obstacle.
In fact, although this engine is 100 cv more powerful than the previous Spider power unit, it has a response time of just 0.8 seconds, guaranteeing the instant responsiveness to the accelerator typical of Ferrari power units.
A whole slew of features contributed to the engine’s exceptional response times. The turbos are on ball-bearing-mounted shafts, while the compressor wheels are in TiAl, a low-density titanium-aluminium alloy. Additionally, the twin-scroll turbines are designed and built to maximise power.
There was a huge focus on efficiency in all areas of the car, starting with combustion: new high-tumble intake ports, 200-bar direct fuel injection, an ECU that controls ignition timing and adaptively predicts misfires, and multi-spark function.
A lot of work also went into improving mechanical efficiency, not least the new oil pump that supplies oil either at high pressure or low pressure and cylinder heads with roller finger followers. Flat-plane crankshaft architecture guarantees maximum compactness, lower mass and helps improve the engine’s internal fluid-dynamics by ensuring equal pulse spacings and thus balance between the cylinders.
This power unit is the pracing horse's most high performance engine ever with zero turbo lag. It delivers 670 cv at 8,000 rpm with a speciﬁc power output of 172 cv/l, a new record for a road-going Ferrari, maximum torque of 760 Nm in seventh gear and a throttle response time of just 0.8 seconds at 2000 rpm in third gear.
Every Ferrari has its own unique and distinctive soundtrack and the 488 Spider is no exception to this rule. The new V8’s soundtrack is seductively full and powerful even at low speeds and increases in volume and clarity as revs rise, underscoring the engine’s exceptional responsiveness, torque and performance.
Clearly, the choice of a rigid hard top was essential to the character of the new Ferrari, guaranteeing a significant improvement in in-car comfort. The RHT was a world first for a mid-rear-engined car when introduced on the 458 Spider. Designed by the Ferrari Design Centre, the 488 Spider features radical new styling honed around its aerodynamic requirements, brilliantly reflecting the drop-top driving pleasure focus of its sportiness and performance.
The 488 has classic Ferrari mid-rear-engined sports car proportions: a short muscular front wing into which the bumper is wedged which lends the whole front of the car a sense of power and speed, and immediately draws the eye to to flanks featuring new side air intakes for the intercoolers.
The motif of the subtle crease line that forms the scallops on the door leading to the intakes is a nod to the 308 GTB.
The front is characterised by a single grille opening. The bonnet has a pronounced, raised central section and two side channels which channel air from the two vents in the bumper.
The engine cover features longitudinal ribs which generate a three-dimensional, dynamic effect and are flanked outboard by sculpted mesh grilles.
The 488 Spider also debuts a new colour designed to enhance its sleek yet muscular forms. The Blu Corsa livery also almost seems to meld with the sky overhead.
The 488 Spider’s cockpit was designed to underscore Ferrari’s Formula 1-inspired philosophy of creating a seamless relationship between driver and car: the commands not clustered on the steering wheel are on the wraparound satellite pods which are angled directly towards the driver.