The values of fuel consumptions and CO2 emissions shown were determined according to the European Regulation (EC) 715/2007 in the version applicable at the time of type approval. The fuel consumption and CO2 emission ﬁgures refer to the WLTP cycle.
In order to be placed on the market, passenger cars carry out a series of tests to verify their compliance with regulations.
The tests to assess fuel consumption, CO2 and pollutant emissions are carried out in the laboratory and are based on speciﬁc driving cycles. In this way, the tests are reproducible and the results comparable. This is important because only a laboratory test, which follows a standardized and repeatable procedure, allows consumers to compare different car models. On 1 September 2017, the new Worldwide harmonised Light-duty vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP) came into force in Europe and will gradually replace the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) protocol. NEDC (New European Driving Cycle): it has been the European driving cycle used so far for the measurement of fuel consumption and emissions from passenger cars and light commercial vehicles. The ﬁrst European driving cycle came into force in 1970 and referred to an urban route. In 1992 it was also considered to have an extra-urban phase and since 1997 it has been used for measuring consumption and CO2 emissions. However, the composition of this cycle is no longer consistent with current driving styles and distances travelled on different types of roads. The average speed of the NEDC is only 34 km/h, accelerations are low and the maximum speed is just 120 km/h. WLTP procedure: WLTP uses new Worldwide harmonised Light-duty vehicle Test Cycles (WLTC) to measure fuel consumption, CO2 and pollutant emissions from passenger cars and light commercial vehicles. The new protocol aims to provide customers with more realistic data, better reﬂecting the daily use of the vehicle. The new WLTP procedure is characterized by a more dynamic driving proﬁle with more signiﬁcant acceleration. The maximum speed increases from 120 to 131.3 km/ h, the average speed is 46.5 km/h and the total cycle time is 30 minutes, 10 minutes more than the previous NEDC. The distance travelled doubles from 11 to 23.25 kilometers. The WLTP test consists of four parts depending on the maximum speed: Low (up to 56.5 km/h), Medium (up to 76.6 km/h), High (up to 97.4 km/h), Extra-high (up to 131.3 km/h). These parts of the cycle simulate urban and suburban driving and driving on extra-urban roads and motorways. The procedure also takes into account all vehicle’s optional contents that affect aerodynamics, rolling resistance and vehicle mass, resulting in a CO2 value that reﬂects the characteristics of the single vehicle.
The WLTP procedure will gradually replace the NEDC procedure. The WLTP applies to new passenger car models from 1 September 2017, to all passenger cars registered from 1 September 2018 and is mandatory for all EU Member States. Until the end of 2020, both fuel consumption and CO2 emission values in WLTP and NEDC will be present in the vehicle documents. Indeed, NEDC values will be used to assess the average CO2 emissions of cars registered in the EU throughout 2020. In addition, some countries may continue to use the NEDC data for ﬁscal purposes. From 2021 onwards, WLTP data will be the only consumption/ CO2 emissions values for all cars. Used vehicles will not be affected by this step and will maintain their certiﬁed NEDC values.
ROAD CONSUMPTION AND EMISSIONS OF PASSENGER CARS
The new WLTP test procedure is more representative of current driving conditions than the NEDC procedure, but it cannot take into account all possible cases including the effect of the driving style that is speciﬁc to each individual driver.
Therefore, there will still be a difference between emissions and consumption measured in the laboratory and those resulting from the use of the vehicle in the real world, and the extent of this difference will depend on factors such as driving behavior, the use of on-board systems (e. g. air conditioning), trafﬁc and weather conditions that are characteristic of each geographical area and each driver. For this reason, only a standardized laboratory test allows to obtain values with which it is possible to compare vehicles and different models in a fair way.
WHAT CHANGES FOR CUSTOMERS
The new WLTP procedure will provide a more realistic criterion for comparing the fuel consumption and CO2 emission values of different vehicle models as it has been designed to better reﬂect real driving behavior and take into account the speciﬁc technical characteristics of the individual model and version, including optional equipment.
The SF90 Stradale has a 90° V8 turbo engine capable of delivering 780 cv, the highest power output of any 8-cylinder in Ferrari history. The remaining 220 cv is delivered by three electric motors, one located between the engine and the new 8-speed dual-clutch transmission on the rear axle, and two on the front axle. This sophisticated system does not, however, make for a more complicated driving experience. Quite the opposite, in fact: the driver simply has to select one of the four power unit modes, and then just concentrate on driving. The sophisticated control logic takes care of the rest, managing the flow of power between the V8, the electric motors and the batteries.
The SF90 Stradale is equipped with three electric motors capable of generating a total of 220 cv (162 kW). A high performance Li-ion battery provides power to all three motors and guarantees a 25-kilometre range in all-electric eDrive mode, using just the front axle. When the internal combustion engine is turned off, the two independent front motors deliver a maximum speed of 135 km/h with longitudinal acceleration of ≤0.4 g. Reverse can only be used in eDrive mode which means the car can be manoeuvred at low speeds without using the V8. This mode is ideal for city centre driving or any other situation in which the driver wishes to eliminate the sound of the Ferrari V8.
This is the default setting when the car is turned on, in which the power flows are managed to optimise the overall efficiency of the system. The control logic autonomously decides whether to keep the internal combustion engine running or turn it off. If it is on, the internal combustion engine can run at maximum power thus guaranteeing powerful performance whenever the driver requires.
Unlike ‘Hybrid’, this mode keeps the ICE running because the priority is more on charging the battery than on efficiency. This guarantees that power is instantly and fully available when required. This mode is best suited to situations in which driving pleasure and fun behind the wheel are the main focus.
The internal combustion engine and electric motors work in synergy to generate an incredible 1,000 cv, which puts the SF90 Stradale at the very top of the range in performance terms.This mode allows the system to achieve maximum power output by allowing the electric motors to work at their maximum potential (162kW). The control logic prioritises performance over battery charging.
The SF90 Stradale is the first ever Ferrari to feature PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle) architecture which sees the internal combustion engine integrated with three electric motors, two of which are independent and located on the front axle, with the third at the rear between the engine and the gearbox.
The SF90 Stradale’s engine cover has been kept extremely low to improve the interaction between the flows over and under the body, and thus minimise drag.
The end section of the engine cover features a suspended wing divided in two sections: one fixed, which incorporates the third brake light, and one mobile with a wedge-shaped front area.
The latter has been dubbed the shut-off Gurney, a patented active system located at the rear of the car which regulates the air flow over the upper body, reducing drag at high speeds with low lateral dynamics loads and increasing downforce in corners, under braking and during changes of direction.
Rear downforce is balanced at the front of the car by a complex and optimised system of vortex generators.
Although this is not its very first appearance on a Ferrari sports car, the system has been honed to the maximum on the SF90 Stradale: the front section of the chassis has been raised 15 mm compared to the central section of the chassis at the point where the vortex generators are located, thus increasing the amount of air channelled towards them and boosting their effect.
The front bumper is divided into two sections that have specific wing functions. Between the upper section and the bonnet is a pronounced indent that locally compresses the flow. This feature, together with the two diffusers ahead of the front wheels, contributes to generating downforce over the front axle.
Specific aerodynamic research went into the geometry of the forged wheels which are made using a construction technology that allows greater freedom when it comes to aerodynamic solutions. The specific geometry of the wheels incorporate radial elements on the outer channel which are equally spaced between the spokes and designed to act as wing profiles.
The geometry of these profiles mean that the wheel works like a rotor blade, very efficiently managing the flows from inside the wheelarch and guaranteeing two main effects: air evacuation from wheel arch is boosted; the flow exiting the wheel rim is lined up with the longitudinal flow running along the sides.
The internal combustion engine, gearbox, turbo-charged air, battery pack and electric motors, the inverters and charging systems and brakes all need cooling. Meticulous attention was paid to the design of the engine bay which houses both the usual internal combustion engine systems that generate temperatures of nearly 900°C, and highly temperature-sensitive electronic components.
The exceptional work done to boost the power unit’s power would have all been in vain without in-depth dynamics research and the development of a whole series of solutions to boost the SF90 Stradale’s lap times, whilst simultaneously guaranteeing that drivers of all kinds could make full use of the car’s potential and have fun behind the wheel.
The new hybrid architecture required extensive and lengthy integration work on the car’s many different control logics. The three areas concerned are: the high-voltage system controls (battery, RAC-e, MGUK, inverter), engine and gearbox control and vehicle dynamics controls (traction, braking, Torque Vectoring).
Integrating these areas with the existing vehicle control logics led to the development of the new eSSC (electronic Side Slip Control) vehicle control system. The eSSC introduces three innovative dynamic regulation and distribution strategies for engine torque to all four wheels:
- Electric Traction Control (eTC): optimally manages the availability of the torque – both ICE and electric - distributing it to the individual wheels to suit driving conditions and grip requirements
- brake-by-wire control with ABS/EBD: allows the braking torque to be split between the hydraulic system and the electric motors (brake torque blending), allowing regenerative recovery under braking which actually boosts performance and brake feel rather than compromising them
- Torque Vectoring: available on the front axle to manage electric traction on outside and inside wheel in cornering to maximise traction exiting the corner and help ensure easy, confident, high-performance driving.
Another signature solution is the headlights which hail a move away from the L-shaped look, to a slender slit design integrated with the brake air intakes resulting in a characteristic C-shape which lends the front of the car an original and futuristic appeal.
In an absolute first for a Ferrari, the SF90 Stradale uses matrix LED headlight technology to improve visibility in all driving conditions thanks to active beam control.
The tail lights have also evolved quite radically from Ferrari’s iconic round shape. The eye-catching, more horizontal luminous rings create a more horizontal perception of the tail lights which in turn visually lowers the height of the tail.
More compact overhangs (the rear one is shorter than the front one in particular) and the frontward-shift of the cabin have created a cab-forward-type architecture which emphasises the fact that the engine is mid-mounted. A very low centre of gravity has also allowed the designers to lower the cabin area by 20 mm.
Combined with a more curved windshield, slender A-posts and a wide track, this creates a beautifully proportioned car with sleeker volumes.
The compact bubble-shaped cabin has an aeronautical cockpit feel and the fact that it has been shifted so far forward is further emphasised by the geometry of the two body-coloured rear flying buttresses that enclose the rear.
The SF90 Stradale is the most advanced car in the range from a point of view of performance and technology. The definition of the exterior styling was inspired by that principle: to create a forward-looking, innovative design that transmits the car’s mission as an extreme sports car – Ferrari’s first series production supercar.
Ferrari Design has thus completely revisited the proportions of the front, central and rear volumes in a radical evolution of the forms of Ferrari’s mid-rear-engined production berlinettas of the last twenty years. The aim was to design a leading-edge extreme car capable of delivering completely unprecedented performance for a Prancing Horse production car. The SF90 Stradale slots in between the mid-rear-engined coupés, today represented by the F8 Tributo, and supercars of the likes of LaFerrari, and is the new standard-bearer for hyper-technological extreme cars brimming with future-forward content.
The SF90 Stradale’s architecture, in which the cabin is located ahead of the mid-mounted engine, provided Flavio Manzoni and his team of designers at the Ferrari Styling Centre, with the ideal platform on which to craft a genuine supercar of impeccable proportions.The rear of the car is dominated by high exhaust pipes which are the result of optimisation of the exhaust line layout. Because the power- train is significantly lower in the car than in the past, the designers were also able to lower the car’s tail. Another deviation from the styling typical of past berlinettas is the way the profile of the rear screen no longer follows the line from the roof to the rear bumper. This element of styling discontinuity is evidenced by the separation of the screen from the cooling grille.
In a first for a Ferrari, the central instrument cluster comprises a single 16” digital HD screen which curves towards the driver to make it easier to read and to emphasise the F1-style wrap-around cockpit effect. This is the first time this type of screen has been adopted in a production car.
When the engine and motors are off, the onboard instruments go black lending the cockpit a wonderfully sleek, minimalist look. In line with Ferrari tradition, the default screen is dominated by a large circular rev counter which, however, this time is framed by the battery charge indicator. The navigation screen is on one side of the rev counter with the audio control one on the other.
The “hands-on-the-wheel” philosophy has consistently driven the development of the human-machine interface in every Ferrari F1 car and its subsequent gradual transfer to its road-going sports cars.
Of the new touch controls, the compact but functional pad on the right-hand spoke allows the driver to navigate the central cluster screens, while voice and cruise controls are on the left-hand spoke.
Also noteworthy is the adoption of a rotary switch for cruise control, a solution derived directly from the Formula 1 car.
Thanks to an additional steering wheel-mounted selector, dubbed the eManettino (analogous to the Manettino which is used to set the electronic vehicle dynamics modes), the driver can choose from four different power unit management modes.
The control logic optimally manages the power flows either with the emphasis on efficiency or performance depending on the user profile selected by the driver.
While the SF90 Stradale’s exterior was crafted to underscore its seamless combining of form, technology and performance, the interior is even more radical. The very explicit aim there was to create a cockpit that ushered in an entirely new design direction, the effects of which would carry over into Ferrari’s entire future range.
The designers took a futuristic approach to the interface concept with a strong focus on creating a wraparound aeronautically-inspired cockpit with particular emphasis on instruments. This further emphasised and underscored the symbiotic relationship between car and driver. In fact, the SF90 Stradale makes an epoch-changing leap forward both in formal and content terms, updating the Human Machine Interface with all-digital technology.
The Head Up Display is another part of the innovative HMI and allows various data to be projected onto the windshield within the driver’s field of vision so that their attention is not distracted from driving.
From a creative perspective, the SF90 Stradale interface project gave the Ferrari Style Centre’s designers the opportunity to interpret the screens in the cabin as a canvas on which all the car’s functions and controls could be represented. The screen graphics on the SF90 Stradale were also designed to create a 3D effect which is particularly striking during transitions, such as when the instrument panel is turned on or when swapping from one screen to the next.
Alongside the new-concept HMI, another major theme tackled in the cabin was the tunnel area interface. The F1 controls on the “bridge” are probably the most iconic of the Ferraris of recent generations. These have been completely redesigned and set into a modern metal plate which references an equally iconic feature from the past: the classic gear lever gate.
For the first time on a Ferrari, clients can choose between the standard car and a version with a more sports-oriented specification.
The Assetto Fiorano is a special version of the SF90 Stradale, available on request, and designed to further enhance the clear racing spirit the car already has. Those who opt for this set-up gain access to a range of exclusive content, including Multimatic shock absorbers inspired by Ferrari’s experience in GT competitions and adjusted for optimal use on the track, and high-performance materials (such as carbon fibre and titanium) that reduce the weight of this 21 kg car. Added to this are the carbon fibre rear spoiler and the Michelin Pilot Sport Cup 2 tyres, approved for road use and designed to improve track performance, while the special two-tone colouring* provides a finishing touch.
* optional content