The values of fuel consumptions and CO2 emissions shown were determined according to the European Regulation (EC) 715/2007 in the version applicable at the time of type approval. The fuel consumption and CO2 emission ﬁgures refer to the WLTP cycle.
In order to be placed on the market, passenger cars carry out a series of tests to verify their compliance with regulations.
The tests to assess fuel consumption, CO2 and pollutant emissions are carried out in the laboratory and are based on speciﬁc driving cycles. In this way, the tests are reproducible and the results comparable. This is important because only a laboratory test, which follows a standardized and repeatable procedure, allows consumers to compare different car models. On 1 September 2017, the new Worldwide harmonised Light-duty vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP) came into force in Europe and will gradually replace the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) protocol. NEDC (New European Driving Cycle): it has been the European driving cycle used so far for the measurement of fuel consumption and emissions from passenger cars and light commercial vehicles. The ﬁrst European driving cycle came into force in 1970 and referred to an urban route. In 1992 it was also considered to have an extra-urban phase and since 1997 it has been used for measuring consumption and CO2 emissions. However, the composition of this cycle is no longer consistent with current driving styles and distances travelled on different types of roads. The average speed of the NEDC is only 34 km/h, accelerations are low and the maximum speed is just 120 km/h. WLTP procedure: WLTP uses new Worldwide harmonised Light-duty vehicle Test Cycles (WLTC) to measure fuel consumption, CO2 and pollutant emissions from passenger cars and light commercial vehicles. The new protocol aims to provide customers with more realistic data, better reﬂecting the daily use of the vehicle. The new WLTP procedure is characterized by a more dynamic driving proﬁle with more signiﬁcant acceleration. The maximum speed increases from 120 to 131.3 km/ h, the average speed is 46.5 km/h and the total cycle time is 30 minutes, 10 minutes more than the previous NEDC. The distance travelled doubles from 11 to 23.25 kilometers. The WLTP test consists of four parts depending on the maximum speed: Low (up to 56.5 km/h), Medium (up to 76.6 km/h), High (up to 97.4 km/h), Extra-high (up to 131.3 km/h). These parts of the cycle simulate urban and suburban driving and driving on extra-urban roads and motorways. The procedure also takes into account all vehicle’s optional contents that affect aerodynamics, rolling resistance and vehicle mass, resulting in a CO2 value that reﬂects the characteristics of the single vehicle.
The WLTP procedure will gradually replace the NEDC procedure. The WLTP applies to new passenger car models from 1 September 2017, to all passenger cars registered from 1 September 2018 and is mandatory for all EU Member States. Until the end of 2020, both fuel consumption and CO2 emission values in WLTP and NEDC will be present in the vehicle documents. Indeed, NEDC values will be used to assess the average CO2 emissions of cars registered in the EU throughout 2020. In addition, some countries may continue to use the NEDC data for ﬁscal purposes. From 2021 onwards, WLTP data will be the only consumption/ CO2 emissions values for all cars. Used vehicles will not be affected by this step and will maintain their certiﬁed NEDC values.
ROAD CONSUMPTION AND EMISSIONS OF PASSENGER CARS
The new WLTP test procedure is more representative of current driving conditions than the NEDC procedure, but it cannot take into account all possible cases including the effect of the driving style that is speciﬁc to each individual driver.
Therefore, there will still be a difference between emissions and consumption measured in the laboratory and those resulting from the use of the vehicle in the real world, and the extent of this difference will depend on factors such as driving behavior, the use of on-board systems (e. g. air conditioning), trafﬁc and weather conditions that are characteristic of each geographical area and each driver. For this reason, only a standardized laboratory test allows to obtain values with which it is possible to compare vehicles and different models in a fair way.
WHAT CHANGES FOR CUSTOMERS
The new WLTP procedure will provide a more realistic criterion for comparing the fuel consumption and CO2 emission values of different vehicle models as it has been designed to better reﬂect real driving behavior and take into account the speciﬁc technical characteristics of the individual model and version, including optional equipment.
In the SF90 Spider, the traditional Manettino is flanked by an additional selector, dubbed the eManettino, which manages the power flows from and to the hybrid system. It offers the driver a choice of four modes:
• eDrive: the internal combustion engine remains off and traction is entrusted entirely to the electric front axle. The car can cover up to 25 km in this mode;
• Hybrid: the control logic autonomously decides whether to keep the internal combustion engine running or turn it off. Power flow from the electric motors is limited to conserve battery power;
• Performance: this mode keeps the ICE running because the priority is more on charging the battery than on efficiency. This guarantees that power is instantly and fully available when required;
• Qualify: this mode allows the system to unleash all of the car's 1,000 cv by letting the electric motors work at their maximum potential (162kW).
The SF90 Spider’s engine cover has been kept extremely low to improve the interaction between the flows over and under the body, and thus minimise drag.
The end section of the engine cover features a suspended wing divided in two sections: one fixed, which incorporates the third brake light, and one mobile with a wedge-shaped front area.
The latter has been dubbed the shut-off Gurney, a patented active system located at the rear of the car which regulates the air flow over the upper body, reducing drag at high speeds with low lateral dynamics loads and increasing downforce in corners, under braking and during changes of direction.
Rear downforce is balanced at the front of the car by a complex and optimised system of vortex generators.
Although this is not its very first appearance on a Ferrari sports car, the system has been honed to the maximum on the SF90 Spider: the front section of the chassis has been raised 15 mm compared to the central section of the chassis at the point where the vortex generators are located, thus increasing the amount of air channelled towards them and boosting their effect.
The front bumper is divided into two sections that have specific wing functions. Between the upper section and the bonnet is a pronounced indent that locally compresses the flow. This feature, together with the two diffusers ahead of the front wheels, contributes to generating downforce over the front axle.
Specific aerodynamic research went into the geometry of the forged wheels which are made using a construction technology that allows greater freedom when it comes to aerodynamic solutions. The specific geometry of the wheels incorporate radial elements on the outer channel which are equally spaced between the spokes and designed to act as wing profiles.
The geometry of these profiles mean that the wheel works like a rotor blade, very efficiently managing the flows from inside the wheelarch and guaranteeing two main effects: air evacuation from wheel arch is boosted; the flow exiting the wheel rim is lined up with the longitudinal flow running along the sides.
The existing dynamic control system has been further enhanced. Now referred to as the electronic Side Slip Control (eSSC) system, it verifies the car’s dynamic status in real time. Based on that information, it controls vehicle stability by delivering torque independently via the front electric engines to the inside and outside wheel (Torque Vectoring), significantly improving traction coming out of corners and making it much simpler and more intuitive to drive on the limit with confidence.
The track-derived “eyes on the road, hands on the steering wheel” philosophy, which drove the ergonomics and styling of the interior, has produced an innovative new HMI concept that includes a new steering wheel with a touchpad that allows drivers to control virtually every aspect of the car without moving their hands from the wheel. The central instrument cluster is now entirely digital with a 16” curved HD screen, which can be fully configured and controlled using the controls on the steering wheel. On the central tunnel, the automatic gearbox controls are now actioned by a grille-style feature that references Ferrari’s glorious and iconic manual gearshift gate.
For the first time on a Ferrari, clients can choose between the standard car and a version with a more sports-oriented specification.
The Assetto Fiorano is a special version of the SF90 Spider, available on request, and designed to further enhance the clear racing spirit the car already has. Those who opt for this set-up gain access to a range of exclusive content, including Multimatic shock absorbers inspired by Ferrari’s experience in GT competitions and adjusted for optimal use on the track, and high-performance materials (such as carbon fibre and titanium) that reduce the weight of this 21 kg car. Added to this are the carbon fibre rear spoiler and the Michelin Pilot Sport Cup 2 tyres, approved for road use and designed to improve track performance, while the special two-tone colouring* provides a finishing touch.
* optional content