The values of fuel consumptions and CO2 emissions shown were determined according to the European Regulation (EC) 715/2007 in the version applicable at the time of type approval.
The fuel consumption and CO2 emission ﬁgures refer to the WLTP cycle.
The values of fuel consumptions and CO2 emissions shown were determined according to the European Regulation (EC) 715/2007 in the version applicable at the time of type approval. The fuel consumption and CO2 emission ﬁgures refer to the WLTP cycle.
In order to be placed on the market, passenger cars carry out a series of tests to verify their compliance with regulations.
The tests to assess fuel consumption, CO2 and pollutant emissions are carried out in the laboratory and are based on speciﬁc driving cycles. In this way, the tests are reproducible and the results comparable. This is important because only a laboratory test, which follows a standardized and repeatable procedure, allows consumers to compare different car models. On 1 September 2017, the new Worldwide harmonised Light-duty vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP) came into force in Europe and will gradually replace the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) protocol. NEDC (New European Driving Cycle): it has been the European driving cycle used so far for the measurement of fuel consumption and emissions from passenger cars and light commercial vehicles. The ﬁrst European driving cycle came into force in 1970 and referred to an urban route. In 1992 it was also considered to have an extra-urban phase and since 1997 it has been used for measuring consumption and CO2 emissions. However, the composition of this cycle is no longer consistent with current driving styles and distances travelled on different types of roads. The average speed of the NEDC is only 34 km/h, accelerations are low and the maximum speed is just 120 km/h. WLTP procedure: WLTP uses new Worldwide harmonised Light-duty vehicle Test Cycles (WLTC) to measure fuel consumption, CO2 and pollutant emissions from passenger cars and light commercial vehicles. The new protocol aims to provide customers with more realistic data, better reﬂecting the daily use of the vehicle. The new WLTP procedure is characterized by a more dynamic driving proﬁle with more signiﬁcant acceleration. The maximum speed increases from 120 to 131.3 km/ h, the average speed is 46.5 km/h and the total cycle time is 30 minutes, 10 minutes more than the previous NEDC. The distance travelled doubles from 11 to 23.25 kilometers. The WLTP test consists of four parts depending on the maximum speed: Low (up to 56.5 km/h), Medium (up to 76.6 km/h), High (up to 97.4 km/h), Extra-high (up to 131.3 km/h). These parts of the cycle simulate urban and suburban driving and driving on extra-urban roads and motorways. The procedure also takes into account all vehicle’s optional contents that affect aerodynamics, rolling resistance and vehicle mass, resulting in a CO2 value that reﬂects the characteristics of the single vehicle.
The WLTP procedure will gradually replace the NEDC procedure. The WLTP applies to new passenger car models from 1 September 2017, to all passenger cars registered from 1 September 2018 and is mandatory for all EU Member States. Until the end of 2020, both fuel consumption and CO2 emission values in WLTP and NEDC will be present in the vehicle documents. Indeed, NEDC values will be used to assess the average CO2 emissions of cars registered in the EU throughout 2020. In addition, some countries may continue to use the NEDC data for ﬁscal purposes. From 2021 onwards, WLTP data will be the only consumption/ CO2 emissions values for all cars. Used vehicles will not be affected by this step and will maintain their certiﬁed NEDC values.
ROAD CONSUMPTION AND EMISSIONS OF PASSENGER CARS
The new WLTP test procedure is more representative of current driving conditions than the NEDC procedure, but it cannot take into account all possible cases including the effect of the driving style that is speciﬁc to each individual driver.
Therefore, there will still be a difference between emissions and consumption measured in the laboratory and those resulting from the use of the vehicle in the real world, and the extent of this difference will depend on factors such as driving behavior, the use of on-board systems (e. g. air conditioning), trafﬁc and weather conditions that are characteristic of each geographical area and each driver. For this reason, only a standardized laboratory test allows to obtain values with which it is possible to compare vehicles and different models in a fair way.
WHAT CHANGES FOR CUSTOMERS
The new WLTP procedure will provide a more realistic criterion for comparing the fuel consumption and CO2 emission values of different vehicle models as it has been designed to better reﬂect real driving behavior and take into account the speciﬁc technical characteristics of the individual model and version, including optional equipment.
In Ferrari, the fun-to-drive factor is measured by five different indicators which are used to set targets during the development phase.The first factor is lateral acceleration which determines response to steering wheel inputs, the prompt reaction of the rear axle to steering inputs, and, consequently, ease of handling. Longitudinal acceleration, on the other hand, comes down to the speed and smoothness of the response to the accelerator pedal. The third factor is gear shifting in terms of shift times and feeling of coherent progression through the gears with every gear change. The fourth factor is braking: brake pedal feel in terms of travel and response. Lastly, sound levels and quality in the cabin and progression of engine sound as revs rise are also monitored
The changes made for the Ferrari 296 GTS further emphasise the clean, sophisticated lines of the 296 GTB. When the top is down, it is the peerlessly elegant epitome of the open-air hybrid concept. Its unprecedented architecture for a spider, in fact, opens a whole new chapter in the marque’s story. The designers’ goal of retaining the 296 GTB’s main characteristics required a period of meticulous analysis of the dimensions of its technical components. There was a clear focus on minimising the impact of any modifications on the exterior bodywork and also on introducing a clear, instantly recognisable theme that would encapsulate the complexity of the design whilst translating it into accomplished linear forms
The need to stow the RHT (Retractable Hard Top) inside the engine compartment inspired the Ferrari Styling Centre team headed by Flavio Manzoni to create a new tonneau cover design, the geometries of which have produced styling elements very different to the Ferrari spiders of the recent past.
While on the 296 GTB the engine bay is completely horizontal and dominated by two flying buttresses, in a nod to the 250 Le Mans archetype, the 296 GTS’s tail is absolutely unique
As is the case with the 296 GTB, the dominant feature of the new car’s architecture is the signature ‘aero bridge’. The overall effect is of an extremely compact cabin effortlessly integrated with the wings and flanks.
The buttress theme is further enhanced by contrasting sculpted extensions that frame the engine cover screen and integrate the novel fuel filler and battery charge covers, avoiding an architectural disharmony
The 296 GTS’s dynamic development focussed around boosting the car’s pure performance, delivering class-leading levels of driver engagement as well as improving the usability and accessibility not just of the car’s speed, but also the hybrid layout.
Specific components have been developed, not least the Transition Manager Actuator (TMA) and the 6-way Chassis Dynamic Sensor (6w-CDS). There are also new functions, such as the ABS EVO controller, which uses the data gathered by the 6w-CDS, and the grip estimation integrated with the EPS, seen on the 296 GTB
How easily accessible and usable the performance is also of significant importance in the 296 GTS: for instance, in electric-only eDrive mode, the car can reach speeds of up to 135 km/h without resorting to the ICE.
In Hybrid mode, on the other hand, the ICE backs up the electric motor when higher performance is required. Stopping distances in the dry have been significantly shortened by the ABS EVO and its integration with the 6w-CDS sensor, which also ensures more consistent braking force under repeated heavy braking
The spider’s extreme power and performance can be boosted to the utmost by the 296 GTS Assetto Fiorano package which includes significant weight reduction and aero features.
These include special GT racing-derived adjustable Multimatic shock absorbers optimised for track use, high downforce carbon-fibre appendages on the front bumper, and more extensive use of lightweight materials such as carbon-fibre for both cabin and exterior.
The structure of some components, such as the inner door panel, had to be redesigned in some cases resulting in an overall weight saving of 8 kg. Lastly, a special 250 Le Mans-inspired livery can also be ordered exclusively with the Assetto Fiorano package.
Its design runs from the front wings and hugs the central grille and delineates its edges. This styling element continues along the bonnet, creating a hammer motif before running lengthways up to the RHT, tonneau cover and then down onto the rear spoiler