375 America (1953)
The 375 America model was first displayed at the 1953 Paris Salon in Pinin Farina three window coupé form, with a duo tone paint finish, the shape of which was a refinement of that seen on the Pinin Farina offering on the 212 Inter model of 1952-53. It used virtually the same 2800mm wheelbase chassis as the concurrent 250 Europa, and they were similarly numbered in the odd number road car sequence but carried an "AL" (America Lungo) suffix. The 375 America chassis carried a factory type reference 104, whereas that of the 250 Europa had type reference 103, which were the longest wheelbase chassis’ produced by Ferrari up to that time. The mechanical components, apart from the engine, were identical to those of the 250 Europa model. As with the 250 Europa, the majority were fitted with either a Pinin Farina three or five window coupé body. Three examples had a Vignale coupé bodies, whilst there was also a single Vignale cabriolet, and the very last example produced had a very special, and unusual, Pinin Farina coupé body with a wrap around front screen, vertical radiator grille, and buttresses running from the roofline into the tail panel, which was built specially for Gianni Agnelli, the head of Fiat, and displayed at the 1954 Turin Salon.
The engine was a development of the Lampredi designed "long" block V12, with a capacity of 4522cc, and a bore and stroke of 84mm x 68mm, fitted with a bank of three twin choke Weber 40 DCZ or DCF carburettors, twin coil and distributor ignition, to produce a claimed 300bhp. The engine was coupled to a four speed all synchromesh gearbox, which carried the drive through a universally jointed propeller shaft to the rigid rear axle, for which a variety of ratios were available, depending whether the client wanted searing acceleration or relaxed high speed cruising.
It was the use of the "long" block engine, together with the desire to provide a spacious cabin, which resulted in such a long wheelbase for the car. Another factor was the move by Pinin Farina to try and provide an instantly recognisable “face” for Ferrari models, through a move towards design uniformity, and also to try and streamline production methods, hence the use of similar body and chassis units for both the 250 Europa and 375 America models. Full uniformity of style had still not been achieved, as even amongst the "standard" Pinin Farina coupés one could find detail differences, apart from the previously mentioned glass area treatment, there were variations in bright trim details on the body, like the radiator grille surround being plain, or fitted with chrome plated trim rings of varying widths, and specific detail changes to suit a particular client's requirements.
A total of ten 375 Americas were built, in the chassis number range 0293 AL to 0355 AL, although two 250 Europas were subsequently fitted with the larger capacity engine of the 375 America. Visually there is nothing to differentiate between the two models, and the individual type can only be verified by checking the chassis plate details, or the size of carburettors fitted, Weber 36 DCZ on the 250 Europa and 40 DCZ on the 375 America.